Dapps: a comprehensive guide to decentralized applications

2023-04-25 by

Hugues Marty

Decentralized applications (dapps) are a new type of software that runs on a blockchain network. Unlike traditional apps that are controlled by a single entity or organization, dapps are decentralized, open-source, and governed by a community of users. This means that they are more transparent, secure, and resilient than centralized apps. In this article, we will provide a detailed guide to dapps, covering their definition, technical aspects, benefits, use cases, and challenges.

Definition of Dapps

According to Vitalik Buterin of Ethereum, the leading blockchain platform for dapps, a decentralized application is “an application that runs on a decentralized network such as a blockchain. Dapps have the potential to disrupt traditional industries by enabling new types of transactions, services, and business models that don’t rely on centralized intermediaries”.

Kyle Samani, managing partner at Multicoin Capital, adds:

Dapps will drive a shift from centralized architectures to decentralized ones, reducing the friction that comes with intermediaries, opening up new use cases and enabling new business models that were not previously possible

Some of the key features of dapps are:

  • Open-source: the code is publicly available for anyone to inspect and contribute to.
  • Decentralized: there is no single point of failure or control, as the data and rules are distributed across the network.
  • Trustless: the transactions and interactions are verified by consensus among the network participants, without the need for trusted intermediaries.
  • Tokenized: some dapps have their own digital tokens that serve as the native currency of the network, allowing users to participate in the governance and value creation of the dapp.

Technical aspects of Dapps

To understand how dapps work, it’s important to know some technical terms and concepts related to blockchain technology. Here are some of the most important ones:

  • Blockchain: a digital ledger that records transactions and data in a tamper-proof and transparent way, using cryptography and consensus mechanisms.
  • Smart contract: a self-executing program that automates the execution of a contract between two or more parties, based on predefined rules and conditions. Smart contracts are stored on the blockchain and can interact with other smart contracts or external systems.
  • Decentralized network: a network of computers that communicate with each other through a peer-to-peer protocol, without the need for a central server or authority. Decentralized networks can be public (e.g., Bitcoin, Ethereum) or private (e.g., Hyperledger).
  • Consensus mechanism: a mechanism that ensures that all the nodes in a network agree on the state of the blockchain, by validating and verifying the transactions and blocks. Some examples of consensus mechanisms are proof of work (PoW), proof of stake (PoS), and delegated proof of stake (DPoS).

Benefits of Dapps

Dapps offer several benefits over centralized apps, both for developers and users. Here are some of them:

  • Transparency: dapps are open-source and decentralized, which means that anyone can audit the code and the data, and verify the integrity and validity of the transactions.
  • Security: dapps are more secure than centralized apps, as they are protected by cryptography, consensus mechanisms, and decentralized networks. This makes it much harder for hackers or malicious actors to tamper with the data or the rules of the dapp.
  • Resilience: dapps are more resilient than centralized apps, as they don’t rely on a single server or authority that can be taken down or corrupted. Even if some nodes in the network fail or are attacked, the dapp can still function.
  • Ownership: dapps enable users to own their data and their digital assets, as they are stored on the blockchain and controlled by the users’ private keys. This gives users more control and autonomy over their digital lives.
  • Innovation: dapps enable developers to create new types of applications and services that were not possible or practical before, such as decentralized finance (DeFi), non-fungible tokens (NFT), and decentralized marketplaces. Dapps also enable new forms of collaboration and coordination among users, without the need for centralized intermediaries.

Use cases of Dapps

Dapps are already being used in various industries and domains, ranging from finance and gaming to social networks and identity. Here are some examples of dapps and their use cases:

  • Uniswap: a decentralized exchange for trading cryptocurrencies, using automated market-making algorithms and user-generated liquidity pools. Uniswap has become one of the most popular and innovative dapps in the DeFi ecosystem, enabling users to swap tokens without relying on traditional exchanges or intermediaries.
  • CryptoKitties: a game that allows users to collect, breed, and trade digital cats on the Ethereum blockchain, using NFTs. CryptoKitties became famous for clogging the Ethereum network in 2017, as it attracted a large number of users and transactions.
  • Brave: a web browser that blocks ads and trackers, and rewards users with BAT tokens for their attention and engagement. Brave is built on the Ethereum blockchain and aims to create a more privacy-preserving and user-centric web ecosystem.
  • uPort: a self-sovereign identity platform that allows users to create and control their own digital identities, using the Ethereum blockchain. uPort enables users to share their identity and credentials with trusted parties, without relying on centralized authorities or intermediaries.

Challenges of Dapps

Despite their potential benefits and use cases, dapps still face several challenges and limitations, both technical and non-technical. Here are some of them:

  • Scalability: dapps are currently limited in their scalability and throughput, as they depend on the capacity and performance of the underlying blockchain network. This can lead to high fees, slow confirmation times, and congestion, especially during periods of high demand or activity.
  • Usability: dapps are often criticized for their complexity and user experience, as they require users to have some knowledge and skills related to blockchain and cryptography. This can deter mainstream adoption and limit the potential user base of dapps.
  • Governance: dapps face governance challenges, as they need to balance the interests and incentives of different stakeholders, such as developers, users, validators, and token holders. This can lead to conflicts and debates over the direction and evolution of the dapp, and the allocation of resources and rewards.
  • Interoperability: dapps need to be interoperable with other dapps and systems, in order to create a seamless and integrated blockchain ecosystem. This requires standards, protocols, and infrastructure that enable cross-chain communication and interaction.


Dapps are a new and exciting paradigm of software that can enable new forms of trust, transparency, and innovation. However, they also face several challenges and limitations that need to be addressed in order to realize their full potential. As the blockchain ecosystem evolves and matures, we can expect to see more dapps emerge and more use cases explored, that can transform various industries and domains. If you are a newbie to dapps, we encourage you to explore and experiment with some of the existing dapps, and to learn more about the technical and social aspects of this fascinating and transformative technology.

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